Announcing the AWS Amplify CLI toolchain. Click here to read more.


The AWS Amplify CLI toolchain enables front-end developers to easily set up the backend resources in the cloud. It is designed to work with the Amplify JavaScript library as well as the AWS Mobile SDKs for iOS and Android. Resources in your AWS account that the Amplify CLI category commands create can be easily consumed by the corresponding Amplify library modules or native SDKs.
The Amplify CLI is written in Node.js. It has a pluggable architecture and can be easily extended with additional functionalities. Click here for more details.



CLI core and plugins

The Amplify CLI uses gluegun. It is highly modularized.
The CLI core provides the pluggable platform, and most of the CLI category functions are implemented as plugins.
The CLI core searches for plugins in the global node_modules directory, and its own node_modules directory.
Plugins are recognized by the amplify- prefix in the package names.
Plugins communicate with the CLI core, and with each other, through the project metadata. The CLI core provides the read and write access to the project metadata for the plugins. The project metadata is stored in file amplify/backend/amplify-meta.json in the user project, see below for more details of the meta data file.

Plugin types

There are four types of plugins

  • category
  • provider
  • frontend
  • general purpose

category plugin

Recognized by the amplify-category- prefix in the package name, a category plugin wraps up the logic to create and manage one category of backend resources in the cloud. It defines the “shape” of the cloud resources based on user (the developer) input, constructs parameters to CRUD cloud resource, and exports relevant cloud resource information to the project metadata.
Categories are managed by AWS and are a functional use case that a client engineer is building as part of their UX, rather than service implementations.

provider plugin

Recognized by the amplify-provider- prefix in the package name, a provider plugin abstracts the actual cloud resource provider. It wraps up communication details such as access credentials, api invoke and wait logic, and response data parsing etc. and exposes simple interface methods for the category plugins to CRUD cloud resource.

frontend plugin

Recognized by the amplify-frontend- prefix in the package name, a frontend plugin handles a specific type of frontend projects, such as Javascript, Android or iOS projects. Among other things, it provides these functionalities:

  • formats the cloud resource information and writes it to a file at the right location so it can be recognized and consumed by the frontend project.
  • builds and serves the frontend application locally with backend hot-wired to the cloud resources.
  • builds and publishes the application (frontend and backend) to its intended users.

general purpose plugin

Recognized by the amplify- prefix, without a plugin type decoration, in the package name, a general purpose plugin does not manage any backend resources in the cloud, but provides certain CLI commands and/or certain functionalities for the CLI core, and other plugins.

Official plugins

  • amplify-category-analytics
  • amplify-category-api
  • amplify-category-auth
  • amplify-category-function
  • amplify-category-hosting
  • amplify-category-notifications
  • amplify-category-storage
  • amplify-category-interactions
  • amplify-codegen
  • amplify-frontend-javascript
  • amplify-frontend-android
  • amplify-frontend-ios
  • amplify-provider-awscloudformation

Third party plugin setup

It’s easy to add a third party plugin to the Amplify CLI.

  1. The plugin author names the plugin package according to the naming convention outlined above and publishes it to the npm registry.
  2. The plugin user executes npm install -g <plugin> and installs the plugin to the global node_modules directory.

The plugin is then picked up by the CLI core and used the same as the official plugins. Click here for more details on how to author new plugins.

CLI Commands

Official CLI commands

  • amplify <category> <subcommand>
  • amplify env <subcommand>
  • amplify configure
  • amplify console
  • amplify delete
  • amplify help
  • amplify init
  • amplify publish
  • amplify push
  • amplify pull (to be implemented)
  • amplify run
  • amplify status

Most plugins also have these commands

  • amplify <category> add
  • amplify <category> remove
  • amplify <category> push

Typical CLI workflow

The following command should be executed inside the user project’s root directory:

  1. amplify init
  2. amplify <category> add/remove
  3. amplify push

The init process

$ amplify init
The init command must be executed at the root directory of a project to initialize the project for the Amplify CLI to work with. The init command goes through these steps to setup things:

  • Analyzes the project and confirms with the user to pick the right frontend plugin to handle the project.
  • Carries out the initialization logic of the selected frontend plugin.
  • If there are multiple provider plugins, prompts the user to selected the provider plugins that will provide accesses to backend cloud resources.
  • Carries out, in sequence, the initialization logic of the selected provider plugin(s).
  • Insert amplify folder structure into the project’s root directory, with the initial project configuration information written in it.
  • Generate the project metadata files, with the outputs of the above-selected frontend plugin and provider plugin(s)


amplify configure

This command will lead the user to set up a new aws IAM user, then save the credentials locally in a named profile, which can then be used by a project for aws access. The user specifies if and what profile is used for a project in the init process and can later change it using the amplify configure project command.

amplify configure project

This command allows the user to change the project configuration set during the init process.

Amplify CLI Artifacts

Amplify folder structure

The CLI places the following folder structure at the root directory of the project when init is completed successfully:

amplify/.config folder

It contains files that store cloud configuration and user settings/preferences

amplify/#current-cloud-backend folder

It contains the backend resources specifications in the cloud from the last synchronization, by the amplify push or amplify env pull command. Each plugin stores contents in its own subfolder inside this folder.

amplify/backend folder

It contains the latest local development of the backend resources specifications to be pushed to the cloud. Each plugin stores contents in its own subfolder inside this folder.

Amplify Files

amplify-meta.json file

Both the amplify/backend and amplify/#current-cloud-backend directories contain an amplify-meta.json file.
The amplify-meta.json in the backend directory serves as the whiteboard for the CLI core and the plugins to log information for themselves, and to communicate with each other.

The CLI core provides read and write access to the file for the plugins.
The CLI core collects the selected providers’ outputs after init and logs them under the “providers” object, e.g. the awscloudformation provider outputs the information of the root stack, the deployment S3 bucket, and the authorized/unauthorized IAM roles, and they are logged under the providers.awscloudformation object

Each category plugin logs information under its own name.
Because one category might create multiple services within one project (e.g. the interactions category can create multiple bots), the category metadata generally follows a two-level structure like the following:

    <category>: {
        <service1>: {
            //service1 metadata
        <service2>: {
            //service2 metadata

The metadata for each service is first logged into the meta file after the amplify <category> add command is executed, containing some general information that indicates one service of the category has been added locally.
Then, on the successful execution of the amplify push command, the output object will be added/updated in the service’s metadata with information that describes the actual cloud resources that have been created or updated.

aws-exports.js file

This file is generated only for JavaScript projects.
It contains the consolidated outputs from all the categories and is placed under the src directory that the user (the developer) specified during the init process. It is updated after each successful execution of the amplify push command, that has created or updated the cloud resources.
This file is consumed by the Amplify JavaScript library for configuration.

awsconfiguration.json file

This file is generated for Android and iOS projects.
It contains the consolidated outputs from all the categories. It is updated after each successful execution of the amplify push command, that has created or updated the cloud resources.

This file is consumed by the iOS and Android native SDKs for configuration.

AWS CloudFormation

Currently, the only official provider plugin, amplify-provider-awscloudformation, uses the AWS CloudFormation to form and update the backend resources in the AWS for the amplify categories.
For more information about AWS CloudFormation, check its user guide: AWS CloudFormation User Guide

How it works

The amplify-provider-awscloudformation uses nested stacks to get its job done

amplify init

During the init process, the root stack is created with three resources:

  • an IAM role for unauthenticated users
  • an IAM role for authenticated users
  • an S3 bucket, the deployment bucket, to support this provider’s workflow
    The provider then logs the information of the root stack and the resources into the project metadata file
    The root stack’s template can be found in this folder:

amplify add

Once the init is complete, run the command amplify <category> add to add resources of a category to the backend.
This will place the aws cloudformation template for the resources of this category in the category’s subdirectory amplify/backend/<category>, and insert its reference into the above-mentioned root stack as the nested child stack.

amplify push

Once the resources of the categories are done been added or updated locally, run the command amplify push to update the backend resources in the cloud.
The CLI will first upload the latest versions of the categories’ nested stack templates to the S3 deployment bucket, and then call the AWS CloudFormation API to create / update resources in the cloud. Based upon the resources added/updated, the aws-exports.js file (for JS projects) and the awsconfiguration.json file (for native projects) gets created/updated.