Announcing the AWS Amplify CLI toolchain. Click here to read more.

Getting Started

Build an iOS app using the Amplify Framework which contains:

  • CLI toolchain for creating and managing your serverless backend.
  • iOS, Android, and JavaScript libraries to access your resources using a category based programming model.
  • Framework-specific UI component libraries for React, React Native, Angular, Ionic and Vue.

This page guides you through setting up a backend and integration into your iOS app. You will create a “Todo app” with a GraphQL API to store and retrieve items in a cloud database, as well as receive updates over a realtime subscription.

GraphQL is a data language that was developed to enable apps to fetch data from APIs. It has a declarative, self-documenting style. In a GraphQL operation, the client specifies how to structure the data when it is returned by the server. This makes it possible for the client to query only for the data it needs, in the format that it needs it in.


Step 1: Configure your app

You can use an existing iOS app or create a new iOS app in Swift as per the steps in prerequisite section.

Install Cocoapods: From a terminal window navigate into your Xcode project’s application directory and run the following:

$ sudo gem install cocoapods
$ pod init

Open the created Podfile in a text editor and add the pod for core AWS Mobile SDK components to your build.

target :'YOUR-APP-NAME' do

    pod 'AWSCore', '~> 2.12.0'
    pod 'AWSAppSync', '~> 2.14.2'

    # other pods

Install dependencies by running the following command:

pod install --repo-update

Close your Xcode project and reopen it using ./YOUR-PROJECT-NAME.xcworkspace file. Remember to always use ./YOUR-PROJECT-NAME.xcworkspace to open your Xcode project from now on. Build your Xcode project.

Step 2: Initialize your project

In a terminal window, navigate to your project folder (the folder that contains your xcodeproj file), and run the following command (for this app, accepting all defaults is OK):

$ amplify init        #accept defaults

The awsconfiguration.json configuration file should be created in the root directory.

Step 3: Add config

What is awsconfiguration.json?

Rather than configuring each service through a constructor or constants file, the AWS SDKs for iOS support configuration through a centralized file called awsconfiguration.json which defines all the regions and service endpoints to communicate. Whenever you run amplify push, this file is automatically created allowing you to focus on your Swift application code. On iOS projects the awsconfiguration.json will be placed into the root directory and you will need to add it to your Xcode project.

In the Finder, drag awsconfiguration.json into Xcode under the top Project Navigator folder (the folder name should match your Xcode project name). When the Options dialog box appears, do the following:

  • Clear the Copy items if needed check box.
  • Choose Create groups, and then choose Finish.

Step 4: Add API and Database

Add a GraphQL API to your app and automatically provision a database by running the the following command from the root of your application directory (accepting all defaults is OK):

$ amplify add api     #select 'GraphQL' service, and 'API Key' for the authorization type

The add api flow will ask you simple questions. If this is your first time using the CLI select No for the question “Do you have an annotated GraphQL schema”. The CLI then guides you through the default project “Single object with fields (e.g., “Todo” with ID, name, description)” as it will be used in the code generation examples below. You can always change the schema as needed. This process creates an AWS AppSync API and connects it to an Amazon DynamoDB database. The CLI flow will look like below:

$ amplify add api
? Please select from one of the below mentioned services: GraphQL
? Provide API name: todo
? Choose the default authorization type for the API: API key
? Enter a description for the API key: ToDo description
? After how many days from now the API key should expire (1-365): 180
? Do you want to configure advanced settings for the GraphQL API: No, I am done.
? Do you have an annotated GraphQL schema? No
? Do you want a guided schema creation? Yes
? What best describes your project: Single object with fields (e.g., “Todo” with ID, name, description)
? Do you want to edit the schema now? No

Learn more about annotating GraphQL schemas and data modeling.

Step 5: Push changes

Create the required backend resources for your configured API using the amplify push command. Since you added an API, the amplify push process will automatically enter the codegen process and prompt you for configuration. Accept the defaults.

The codegen process generates a file named API.swift in your application root directory after the completion of amplify push command.

The CLI flow for push command is shown below:

$ amplify push
? Are you sure you want to continue?: Yes
? Do you want to generate code for your newly created GraphQL API: Yes
? Enter the file name pattern of graphql queries, mutations and subscriptions: graphql/**/*.graphql
? Do you want to generate/update all possible GraphQL operations - queries, mutations and subscriptions: Yes
? Enter maximum statement depth [increase from default if your schema is deeply nested]: 2
? Enter the file name for the generated code: API.swift

Step 6: Add generated code

What is API.swift?

API.swift (or an alternate name chosen by you in CLI flow) contains the generated code for GraphQL statements such as queries, mutation, and subscriptions. This saves you time as you don’t have to hand author them.

From the Finder window, drag and drop the generated API.swift to the Xcode project under the top Project Navigator folder whose name matches your Xcode project name. When the Options dialog box appears, do the following:

  • Clear the Copy items if needed check box.
  • Choose Create groups, and then choose Finish.

Step 7: Integrate into your app

Initialize the AppSync client inside your application delegate:

import AWSAppSync

class AppDelegate: UIResponder, UIApplicationDelegate {

    var appSyncClient: AWSAppSyncClient?

    func application(_ application: UIApplication, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions launchOptions: [UIApplication.LaunchOptionsKey: Any]?) -> Bool {
        do {
            // You can choose the directory in which AppSync stores its persistent cache databases
            let cacheConfiguration = try AWSAppSyncCacheConfiguration()

            // AppSync configuration & client initialization
            let appSyncServiceConfig = try AWSAppSyncServiceConfig()
            let appSyncConfig = try AWSAppSyncClientConfiguration(appSyncServiceConfig: appSyncServiceConfig,
                                                                  cacheConfiguration: cacheConfiguration)
            appSyncClient = try AWSAppSyncClient(appSyncConfig: appSyncConfig)
            print("Initialized appsync client.")
        } catch {
            print("Error initializing appsync client. \(error)")
        // other methods
        return true

Next, in your application code where you wish to use the AppSync client (like your View Controller) reference this in the viewDidLoad() lifecycle method:

import AWSAppSync

class Todos: UIViewController{
  //Reference AppSync client
  var appSyncClient: AWSAppSyncClient?

  override func viewDidLoad() {
      let appDelegate = UIApplication.shared.delegate as! AppDelegate
      appSyncClient = appDelegate.appSyncClient

You can now add data to your database with a mutation function as shown below:

func runMutation(){
    let mutationInput = CreateTodoInput(name: "Use AppSync", description:"Realtime and Offline")
    appSyncClient?.perform(mutation: CreateTodoMutation(input: mutationInput)) { (result, error) in
        if let error = error as? AWSAppSyncClientError {
            print("Error occurred: \(error.localizedDescription )")
        if let resultError = result?.errors {
            print("Error saving the item on server: \(resultError)")
        print("Mutation complete.")

Next, query the data using function below:

func runQuery(){
    appSyncClient?.fetch(query: ListTodosQuery(), cachePolicy: .returnCacheDataAndFetch) {(result, error) in
        if error != nil {
            print(error?.localizedDescription ?? "")
        print("Query complete.")
        result?.data?.listTodos?.items!.forEach { print(($0?.name)! + " " + ($0?.description)!) }

Note: The AppSync API is asynchronous, which means that simply invoking runMutation and runQuery back-to-back may not work as expected, because the mutation will not complete before the query is sent. If you want to ensure that a mutation is complete before issuing a query, use the mutation’s callback to trigger the query as shown below:

func runMutation(){
    let mutationInput = CreateTodoInput(name: "Use AppSync", description:"Realtime and Offline")
    appSyncClient?.perform(mutation: CreateTodoMutation(input: mutationInput)) { [weak self] (result, error) in
        // ... do whatever error checking or processing you wish here

You can also setup realtime subscriptions to data:

var discard: Cancellable?

func subscribe() {
    do {
        discard = try appSyncClient?.subscribe(subscription: OnCreateTodoSubscription(), resultHandler: { (result, transaction, error) in
            if let result = result {
                print("CreateTodo subscription data:"!.onCreateTodo!.name + " " +!.onCreateTodo!.description!)
            } else if let error = error {
        print("Subscribed to CreateTodo Mutations.")
        } catch {
            print("Error starting subscription.")

Call the runMutation(), runQuery(), and subscribe() methods from your app code such as from a button click or when your app starts in viewDidLoad(). You will see data being stored and retrieved in your backend from the Xcode console.

Testing your API You can open the AWS console for you to run Queries, Mutation, or Subscription against you new API at any time directly by running the following command:

$ amplify console api
> GraphQL               ##Select GraphQL

This will open the AWS AppSync console for you to run Queries, Mutations, or Subscriptions at the server and see the changes in your client app.

Next Steps

🎉 Congratulations! Your app is built, with a realtime backend using AWS AppSync.

What next? Here are some things to add to your app:

Existing AWS Resources

If you want to use your existing AWS resources with your app you will need to manually configure your app with an awsconfiguration.json file in your code. For example, if you were using Amazon Cognito Identity, Cognito User Pools, AWS AppSync, or Amazon S3:

    "CredentialsProvider": {
        "CognitoIdentity": {
            "Default": {
                "PoolId": "XX-XXXX-X:XXXXXXXX-XXXX-1234-abcd-1234567890ab",
                "Region": "XX-XXXX-X"
    "CognitoUserPool": {
        "Default": {
            "PoolId": "XX-XXXX-X_abcd1234",
            "AppClientId": "XXXXXXXX",
            "AppClientSecret": "XXXXXXXXX",
            "Region": "XX-XXXX-X"
    "AppSync": {
        "Default": {
            "ApiUrl": "",
            "Region": "XX-XXXX-X",
            "AuthMode": "AMAZON_COGNITO_USER_POOLS"
    "S3TransferUtility": {
        "Default": {
            "Bucket": "BUCKET_NAME",
            "Region": "XX-XXXX-X"

In the configuration above, you would need to set the appropriate values such as Region, Bucket, etc.

AWS SDK Interfaces

For working with other AWS services you can use service interface objects directly via the generated SDK clients.

To work with service interface objects, your Amazon Cognito users’ IAM role must have the appropriate permissions to call the requested services.

You can call methods on any AWS Service interface object supported by the AWS iOS SDK by passing your credentials from the AWSMobileClient to the service call constructor. See SDK Setup Options for more information.